必赢网址 教育 留美经典签证问题集锦

留美经典签证问题集锦



  (25) Why do you like your major?

亚洲必赢 1

亚洲必赢,  I love problem driven research. I like to spend a considerable
amount of time working on problems in Supply Chains Management。

Xin Jin

  (26) Why do you choose US but not Canada or Germany?

By Kevin Holden Dec. 16, 2016 , 9:00 AM

  Because the United States has the most advanced technology and
science in the world. I would like to persue a PhD degree in the United
States but not in any other country.

When China’s leaders decided a generation ago to experiment with opening
the People’s Republic to global market forces, they created an
archipelago of special economic zones (SEZs) along the nation’s southern
coast. South China’s resulting transformation into an export powerhouse
has helped make the country a world trade titan. Now the region is part
of a new round of reforms aimed at reshaping China into a globally
connected pioneer in the sciences. China’s universities, along with the
National Natural Science Foundation and the Chinese Academy of Sciences
(CAS), have created award schemes aimed at attracting scientists trained
in the United States or Europe to take positions across southern China
and to help spur the next stage of the region’s metamorphosis. These
strategies are helping power research breakthroughs in the spheres of
space science, physics, genomics, and medicine.

  (27) Why do you want to pursue a doctor’s degree in the USA?

From rice paddies to space stations

  A Ph.D. degree will help me to achieve my career goal.
**(如有必要)I would like to become a professor in a leading business
school in China, and I am sure that a Ph.D. degree in the USA will help
me to achieve my career goal.

The drive to transmute the country’s burgeoning economic might into
scientific prowess is evident across southern China. Shenzhen,
crisscrossed by rice paddies when it was designated an SEZ, is now one
of the world’s fastest growing cities and hosts one of China’s leading
genomics outfits. Similarly, the tropical island of Hainan, ringed by
fishing villages when it too became an SEZ, opened its new space launch
center this summer. Thousands of visitors watched the premier liftoff of
the new Long March 7 rocket, along with the prototype of a
next-generation human space capsule that it carried into orbit. CAS
leaders say spaceflight is a high-priority sector for heightened
international cooperation. China recently signed an agreement with the
United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, outlining Beijing’s
pledge “to enable United Nations member states, particularly developing
countries, to conduct space experiments onboard China’s space station,
as well as to provide flight opportunities for astronauts and payload
engineers.” CAS is stepping up its twin drives to boost collaboration on
transborder science projects and to increase its standing in worldwide
science. One area in which it has made headway is in studies
encompassing the formation of the universe, the earliest galaxies, and
the solar system. Planetary scientist Yuan Li, a postdoctoral researcher
at Rice University in Houston, says he was persuaded to accept a
position at the CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry through a Global
Youth Experts award. Li is the lead author of a recent Nature Geoscience
study, cowritten with colleagues at Rice, which posited that the
life-enabling carbon in the Earth’s crust might be the result of a
collision between the proto-Earth and a Mercury-like planet about 4.4
billion years ago. That collision was distinct from the interplanetary
smashup that scientists believe gave birth to the Moon during the early
formation of the solar system. “During the accretion of our Earth, there
were probably numerous collisions between the proto-Earth and small
planetary embryos,” says Li. This early period in the solar system’s
evolution, he adds, might have resembled a massive billiards game
involving the inner protoplanets crashing into each other before
entering stabilized orbits around the sun. Li’s paper is part of a
steady rise of articles written by Chinese scholars and published in the
world’s leading academic journals. He says China’s expanding
constellation of incentives for scientists is a powerful attraction for
scholars trained in the West. “In the past five years, thousands of
young scientists like me have returned to China,” he says.

  (28) Why not a Ph.D. degree in China?

Particle physics breakthroughs

  I’ve got my Bachelor degree at Peking University and Master degree
at Tsinghua University. So, it’s quite reasonable for me to peruse my
Ph.D. degree in the United States.You know, the United States has the
most advanced techno logy and science in the world.

China is interested not only in the macroworld, it is also keen on the
microworld. Scientists with an advanced degree in physics who have
accepted positions at south China universities are helping track and
explain how neutrinos morph into different types, or generations, as
they fly through space at nearly the speed of light. These physicists
have joined an international team of scientists who are studying nuclear
reactor–produced neutrinos in the southern Chinese seaside resort of
Daya Bay. Collaboration on these experiments involves universities and
physicists stretching across four continents, says Kam-Biu Luk, a
professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley, and a
distinguished visiting scholar at the University of Hong Kong. Luk, who
heads the international participation in the project, says this
exploration of the long-shrouded world of neutrinos is one of the most
outstanding experiments in particle physics ever conducted by joint
groups of universities based in China and the United States. Physicists
at the University of Hong Kong, the Chinese University of Hong Kong,
Shenzhen University, Dongguan University of Technology, and Sun Yat-sen
University have joined counterparts at Yale, Princeton, and other
laboratories in this expanding experiment. Chinese scientists involved
in these neutrino observations, along with the international team headed
by Luk, were awarded the prestigious Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental
Physics in 2016, for outlining how neutrinos transform as they speed
through the cosmos. They won, according to the prize citation, for
“revealing a new frontier beyond, and possibly far beyond, the standard
model of particle physics.” Due to the rapidly growing neutrino physics
programs in China, Jiajie Ling, a postdoctoral researcher at the
University of Illinois who is now a professor in physics at Sun Yat-sen
University, opted to take a position there with start-up funding support
from the Thousand Talents Program for Distinguished Young Scholars. He
is helping to guide a new series of experiments at Daya Bay: the search
for the hypothesized “sterile neutrino.” This proposed fourth type of
neutrino could be a form of the elusive dark matter that scientists have
been searching for since the last century, says Ling.

Future home of particle colliders

According to Ling, the massive neutrino study he is working on is
helping China move closer to realizing its plans to host an
international coalition of elite physicists around its proposed
supercollider projects. China’s top-echelon physicists, in tandem with
leading scientists worldwide, are designing a ringed particle smasher
measuring up to 100 kilometers in circumference that would initially be
configured as an electron–positron collider, and would later also host a
proton–proton accelerator. “After so many years of preparation and
joining world-wide experiments, now is a fantastic time for China to
host the Circular Electron–Positron Collider and the Super Proton–Proton
Collider,” Ling says. “More importantly, it is also China’s
responsibility to contribute to advancing high-energy physics and
humanity’s knowledge about the universe.” Jie Gao, one of the leaders of
the twin circular collider projects at the CAS Institute of High Energy
Physics, says southern Guangdong Province is a leading contender to host
the ringed accelerators. Chinese and American scientists who are laying
the groundwork for what would be the largest and most sophisticated
particle physics lab in history predict it could attract thousands of
the world’s experimental physicists to take up positions in China’s
planned “collider city.” Alain Blondel, one of the primary shapers of
the Future Circular Collider being mapped out by CERN (the European
Organization for Nuclear Research) in Switzerland, says “it would be
fantastic” if the leaders of CERN and of the Chinese supercollider
program wind up competing to attract the globe’s foremost physicists.
Tao Liu, a physicist at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,
echoes this sentiment. He says China’s planned collider project is the
most exciting ever to capture the attention of leading physics
professors and science students across Hong Kong. The supercolliders,
Liu adds, will “boost development in science and society in the coming
decades, [and] will inspire young talents of this and future
generations to devote themselves to the exploration of basic science.”

Mining the genome

Just across the border from Hong Kong, universities and the local
government in Shenzhen are channeling their expanding funds into making
globally recognized advances in life science research and applications.
“Shenzhen has repositioned itself as one of the world’s leading centers
for genetics research,” says Bicheng Yang, communications director at
the genomics outfit BGI, which is moving forward with plans to create a
specialized life science college in partnership with the South China
University of Technology (SCUT) and the University of Copenhagen. Four
years ago, BGI signed a cooperation pact with the Gates Foundation to
set up joint training programs with the University of the Chinese
Academy of Sciences and SCUT. “The aim is to integrate the new college
more and more into scientific research that stretches across the
continents,” she explains. Xin Jin, a genomics expert with dual research
positions at BGI and at the SCUT, says, “One of the most exciting
projects we are working on is the Chinese Million-ome Project, aimed at
decoding one million Chinese genomes across the entire country.” The
university and BGI are also exploring the use of genomics to map the
genetic evolution of current populations dating back to the early modern
humans who trekked to Asia more than 40,000 years ago, and their
admixture with more archaic species, adds Jin, who coauthored a study on
this topic published in Nature.

At the frontier of human genome editing

The potential use of genomic engineering to eradicate the genetic bases
for diseases is also being explored by groups of university researchers
in the southern mega-city of Guangzhou. One of these groups recently
reported conducting a leading-edge experiment, but with only limited
success, in editing the genomes of human embryos to confer genetic
resistance to HIV infections. A similar paper published in 2015 by
researchers at Sun Yat-sen University ignited a global debate over
whether this type of research should be conducted on human embryos
because of its potential to trigger genetic changes that ripple across
future generations. Since then, leaders of the national science
academies in the United States, the United Kingdom, and China have met
and reached a consensus that while this type of research could continue,
any applications should be prohibited. The lead organizer of the summit
involving the three science academies was David Baltimore, president
emeritus of the California Institute of Technology. He adds that Chinese
researchers can move forward with embryonic genome editing studies as
long as “experiments are limited to 14 days of in vitro growth and no
implantation is attempted.” The genomics teams at Sun Yat-sen University
and at Guangzhou Medical University, says Baltimore, represent “an
effort of two labs to move into the forefront of the research.” Some
scholars suggest that China’s support for these studies, in view of the
U.S. Congressional ban on federal funding for research involving
modifying the genomes of human embryos, could help scientists across
Chinese universities move ahead in this realm of gene editing.

Reversing “brain drain”

In another region of south China, at the Guangdong University of Foreign
Studies, Jing Yang has been conducting research with colleagues at
Pennsylvania State University on structural changes in the brain that
occur when students begin studying a second language. Yang, formerly a
postdoctoral fellow at Penn State, says she joined Guangdong University
of Foreign Studies because the school “is well known for cultivating
international talent.” She says she aims to help transform the
university’s language center into “a leading research center for
linguistics and applied linguistics,” and adds that the government is
providing large-scale grant support to reach that goal. China’s economic
ascent and the increasingly attractive recruitment packages offered by
its universities are becoming extremely appealing to Chinese scholars
who have studied in the West, Yang says, and are beginning to help
reverse a decades-long brain drain, during which scholars left the
country to pursue their careers elsewhere. While many Chinese scientists
still opt to stay in Europe or the United States after obtaining an
advanced degree there, Yang observes that “some scholars, like me, chose
to go home to work for a brighter future for ourselves and also for our
country.” These scholars, she adds, are helping create clusters of
excellent scientific research across China. “The rise of China
definitely is not limited to the economy,” Yang explains. “We hope our
country can excel in science, culture, and technology too. It is a
double win for China and the world.”

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